Dissemination of knowledge of the medical sciences

19/01/2024

Proteomics – Artificial Intelligence – Alzheimer's

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A blood test can calculate the aging of each body and prevent diseases.

A test, developed by researchers in the united STATES, is able to detect the presence of certain proteins in the blood flow, with the help of an artificial intelligence algorithm.

This method, which has been tested with more than 5,000 people, it allows to measure the age of the organs individually, for example, the heart or the brain, and has revealed that almost 20 % of the participants presented an accelerated ageing in a body, which carries a risk of ailments associated and of death.

A study carried out with 5.678 people, led by researchers Stanford Medicine (Stanford university, EE UU), has shown that our bodies age at different rates, and when the age of an organ is especially advanced in comparison with that of his counterpart in any other people of the same age, the person that bears it runs a greater risk of developing diseases associated to that body as they die.

According to the study, one of every five adults 50 years or more, reasonably healthy, you have at least a body that ages at a very rapid pace.

The results of the work of the team of Stanford, published in Nature, reveal that a simple blood test lets you know which organs of the body of a person are aging quickly, if you encounter any, to guide therapeutic interventions long before they manifest clinical symptoms.

"We can estimate the biological age of an organ in a person apparently healthy," explains the lead author of the study, Tony Wyss-Coray, professor of Neurology at the u.s. institution. That, in turn, predicts the risk of having a disease associated with that organ.”

Biological age vs. chronological age

“Numerous studies have presented figures only represent the biological age of individuals – age implied in a sophisticated set of biomarkers– in front of his old crónológica, that is to say, the actual number of years since your birth”, says Wyss-Coray.

The new job was a step further and got different numbers for each of the 11 organs, systems of organs or tissues that are key: heart, fat, lung, immune system, kidney, liver, muscle, pancreas, brain, vascular system, and intestine.

To compare the biological age of each of these bodies to each individual with their counterparts, among a large group of people without serious illnesses obvious, they found that 18.4% of those over 50 years of age had at least one organ that age significantly faster than the average," says.

These people are at a higher risk for diseases in that organ in the next 15 years.

Proteins and IA 

The team has used technologies available on the market and a algorithm of our own design to assess the levels of thousands of proteins in the blood of the people.

The researchers determined that nearly 1,000 of these proteins originated in one or another organ and related anomalous levels of these proteins with the accelerated aging in the corresponding organs and their susceptibility to disease and mortality.

To this end, she trained an algorithm of machine learning of AI to determine the age of individuals based on levels of these proteins.

The algorithm chose the proteins that best correlated with a trait of interest (in this case, the biological aging accelerated, in a person or in a particular organ) asking, one at a time: "is This protein increases the correlation?".

Then, they used the proteins that were identified to focus on each one of the 11 bodies had been selected for the analysis, by measuring the levels of specific proteins of each organ in the blood of each individual.

There was some degree of synchrony between the different organs of the body of a person, but each one of them followed their own path in the process of aging.

Age difference between organs

For each of the 11 bodies, the team Wyss-Coray established the “age difference”: arising from the difference between real age and estimated age, from the calculations of the algorithm-based proteins specific to each organ.

The researchers found that the gaps of age identified in 10 of the 11 organs studied (with the sole exception of the intestine) were significantly associated with the risk of death from all causes over 15 years of follow-up.

Have a body with accelerated aging means to have a standard deviation of the biological age of the body (punctuated by an algorithm) once above the average of the group for that organ between individuals of the same chronological age and this implies a mortality rate between 15% and 50 % higher in the next 15 years, depending on the affected organ.

According to the study, people with an accelerated aging of the heart, but that had no active disease or biomarkers clinically abnormal, had a risk of heart failure is 2.5 times higher than that of persons with a normal aging of the heart.

The brains 'old'" had 1.8 times more likely to suffer cognitive decline in five years that the brains "young".

“The accelerated aging of the brain or of the vascular system –any of the two, you can predict the risk of progression of Alzheimer's disease, as well as the best clinical biomarkers currently used,” say the authors.

In addition, we observed strong associations between a score of renal aging end (more than two standard deviations above the norm) and the hypertension and diabetes, as well as between a score to cardiac aging end and atrial fibrillation and myocardial infarction.

“If we are able to reproduce this finding in 50,000 or 100,000 people,” says Wyss-Coray, “the follow-up of the health of organ-specific in apparently healthy individuals will allow us to detect aging organs of accelerated and treat patients before they become sick”.

To identify the specific proteins of each organ that best indicate an aging too organs, and, consequently, a high risk of disease could also lead to new pharmacological targets.

Wyss-Coray, along with co-authors Hamilton Oh and Jarod Rutledge have co-founded a company, Teal Omics, to explore the marketing of their findings.

The laboratory has focused on brain aging and neurodegeneration, with a specific interest in the cognitive impairment associated with age and Alzheimer's disease.

From this work, it was discovered that blood circulation can modulate the structure and function of the brain and can rejuvenate the brains of old.

His work focuses on the use of the proteomics of human as a tool to understand the aging process and the health measurement.

Sources:

Teal https://www.tealomics.com/ Agencia Sinc https://www.agenciasinc.es/Noticias/Un-analisis-de-sangre-para-calcular-el-envejecimiento-de-cada-organo-y-prevenir-enfermedades

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